There are numbers of impartial computer forensics authorities in developed countries who provide all litigation function at request of courts and their services can obtain for getting computer evidence. Computer Forensics identifies, acquire, restore, and analyze electronic data in litigation.The computer forensics performs their legal duties regarding digital discovery of the documents.
When we look into the legal history of these digital discovery authorities, their function as certified authorities to all document produced in digital form developed with advanced with electronic communication. The assistance of computer forensics is employed by foreign courts for purpose of getting forensic view about the e-data or electronic evidence.The Computer Forensics authorities' employs various tools for purpose of verification of documents, starting from identify, acquire, restore, and analyze electronic documents for their admission and production before court of laws. There verification of documents is not limited to local disk data but even the remote server data is verified. From authentication of record to local hard drive to remote server, the certified forensic discovery authorities help in testifying acquired from data from NT, Novell, UNIX, and Linux servers and PCs, among others.IDENTIFICATION: There procedure adopted by the digital discovery authorities start from electronic discovery is identification.
The electronic discovery is the identification of likely sources of relevant information comparing it with original electronic document. The identification of computer document and its comparison with original record through critical step to help ensure that data is not overlooked and each aspect of date is properly maintained and there is no tampering of database while its production before court of law. There view about the electronic document are requested of disk or remote documents and go on-site to inventory the data and look for hidden sources of taxpayer for evasion of record. In many cases, they present a written e-discovery report of web site and its links with database where it has been hosted.ACQUISITION: The identification of electronic documents is only the first step for proper identification of website link with data base.
Once identified, the second step that they have to follow to gather the relevant information for authentication of the electronic evidence as to judge the reliance of the evidence. They take care to collect relevant information for coming to right conclusion regarding the authenticity of e-documents. They take care to avoid tampering of record and to maintain defensible chain-of-custody. There are three critical procedural phases judging the reliance of the electronic evidence and its presentation before the court of laws.
Computer forensics employs uses forensically tools, their written protocols and internal procedures ensure that their work product with stands scrutiny in all jurisdictions where it is going to be presented before the court.RESTORATION: There are many hidden sources of electronic evidence that can not be retrieved without seeking the assistance of the authorities of foreign jurisdiction. Once information regarding the evidence existed out state jurisdiction gathered, document must have to follow the same procedure of as defined in acquire. Rather it is foreign jurisdiction or not, important information is not retrieved without tested forensic procedures and documentation. The computer forensics helps courts to avoid any unnecessary production of documents, while ensuring that potentially relevant documents are presented, including encrypted, compressed, and password-protected files, are presented before court properly.SEARCHING: Another method is used is filtering of electronic database received in electronic discovery.
While undergoing search of the electronic evidence, the computer forensics uses a variety of methods, tools and appropriate search technique to widows and other operating system for increasing reliability of electronic document to the court of law. The electronic forensics authorities are given number of powers in connect with assessing the reliance of the electronic and figuring out the hidden sources of evidence.PRODUCTION: The production and admission before the court of law is primary function of these forensics authorities and the computer forensics produces legal documents of data to court by their certification. They are granted certification power by statute or they are working as independent autonomous bodies being famous for their impartial reports, they are often asked by court to give opinion about the electronic having agreed by both parties to suit.
They produce copies of the data selected for review and offer recommendations and certification regarding the nature of electronic database to be viewed, organizes data as evidence.VERIFICATION.The computer forensics perform number of function, one of them is offering detailed written certified reports and analyses to courts to just adjudication of matter.
As being declared as "friend-of-the-court" by experts, they assists judges with the interpretation electronic evidence being presented in court proceedings and the testimony of other electronic discovery experts. The court often needs the opinion of these experts regarding the building of the electronic evidence and reliance. For getting appropriate and meeting the reliance standard, although careful attention to detail in the early stages of electronic discovery builds solid expert testimony. The real aim of computer forensics to assist the court in reaching just conclusion regarding production of data as evidence but in Pakistan we have not yet legislated on role of computer forensics as expert role for identification, production and its admission before the court of law.Here need to encourage the computer forensics in Pakistan for getting accurate information for digital evidence.
Their services can be obtained by contractual basis, or they can be incorporated in taxing authorities as confirming them special inspection power.Currently no computer forensics authorities are running their business in Pakistan, reason may be, and no efforts are made to provide legal framework for establishment of certification authorities and to discuss the economic measures for their promotion. The specific amendment should be made to incorporate, computer forensics, proposed vigilance authority as part of the tax structure so that the avoidance of the tax can be minimized..
The writer is an advocate of High Court and practicing immigration and corporate laws in Pakistan since September 2001. He is a self employed and pioneer in research on electronic commerce taxation in Pakistan. His articles were published widely in the critical areas of cyber crimes, electronic commerce, e-taxation and various other topics. He wrote LL.
M thesis on titled "Legislation of electronic commerce taxation in Pakistan" in which he provided comprehensive legal proposals for statutory reconstruction of tax laws for purpose of imposition of taxation on e-business in Pakistan. Currently he is conducting is research on topic 'Electronic commerce taxation: emerging legal issues of digital evidence'.Author can be contacted by adil.
By: Adil Waseem